The Importance of Educational Software in Educational Institutes

Internet has expanded its dimensions like anything. The incredible expansion of the web world along with its easy and affordability of integrated technology have come together to create a new learning methodology of Educational Software. Nowadays, the task of carrying out educational projects and disseminating education is not at all futuristic or alien. This have not only become an important part of the educational setup but also of the business world. The facility to link with the internet in a reasonably priced and competent manner was the basic reason for this tremendous growth of this. Nowadays, education software available in comprehensive package forms for colleges, schools, Universities and even home use.

With time, educational institutions have become more diverse and therefore they cannot risk being simple temples of education. There are vast varieties of activities in educational institutes like admissions, curriculum management, library management, placements, hostel management, finance management and a number of other requirements. It is in view of these burgeoning requirements of schools and higher educational institutions that Educational Software have become popular nowadays. This software can address all the requirements of an educational institute starting from student curriculum management to school bus tracking system to Biometric Attendance System to Student Information System to Library Automation Systems.

Education Software is nowadays constituents of a school’s identity as they are capable of delivering all the associated tasks. Present day software even provides the facility and access to parents to keep a bird’s view of their kid’s progress in the classroom. The Student Information System enables parents to monitor the curriculum of their children and receive feedbacks from the teachers. Intelligent Library Management System allows easy access to library records.

Another aspect of education software is their Bus Tracking System that ensures the safety of students. It is a path breaking integration into this software. Nowadays, they have become quite affordable integrating advanced GPS applications into the software. They are effective tools for the school management as well as the parents, who want to know whether their students or kids are safe while travelling from school to home and vice versa.

The curriculum management component of this is capable giving an interactive learning experience to students. Nowadays, most of the education software is capable of developing to the next level as and when students grow in their knowledge. Online tests and evaluations have become important tools used by such software in order to test the level of students. It can even take the form of a game in order to stimulate the mind of children giving them real demonstrations of subject matter. Educational Software can now be found for students of all ages and for all subjects.

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What is the Argus Safety Database?

The Argus safety database is a key part of the Argus Safety 3.0.1 pharmacovigilance software system. In a nutshell, pharmacovigilance is defined as the monitoring of any possible adverse effects of both herbal remedies and synthetic drugs as they are used.

The digital database is used to help companies ensure compliance with global regulations regarding pharmacovigilance and related activities. As a comprehensive pharmaceutical software system, it supports pharmacovigilance business processes that take place in both the pre- and post-marketing phases.

The Argus database is hosted in a data center that is ISO-9001-certified, and operates according to the security standards promulgated by FDA guidelines. By managing this data center, a pharmaceutical firm or laboratory may obtain maximum physical data security as well as access to effective data backup and recovery procedures whenever these services are needed.

ACCOVION, the full-service contract research organization that offers pharmacovigilance as a core service, has configured the Argus database with customized and validated rules to expedite safety reporting. This setup enables generated safety reports to be sent to regulatory investigators and central ethics committees.

The system covers a wide range of the most commonly used forms, including the American FDA MedWatch 3500A form for drugs, the VAERS form for vaccines, the CIOMS-I form, and many others utilized in European countries.

The standard setup in use by the Argus safety database system includes coding with current World Health Organization and MedDRA data dictionaries, as well as older versions of these dictionaries and many others to meet user requirements.

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Surviving Missing Futon Frame Hardware Nightmares

There seems to be quite a few of us who have owned a futon frame and ended up losing the connecting hardware at one time or another. I myself bought a futon from the retail store I worked in for a number of years back in the early 1990s when futons were all the rage. Maybe you purchased your futon in college, purchased it from a friend or maybe made the purchase for a family room. If you're lucky to live out your life in the same house or apartment there will never be a need to move your futon except except to a different room or location. Obtaining replacement futon frame hardware involves several steps approached in order to locate exactly what you need.

In the first place do not panic just yet. Without the hardware to attach everything back together you're in some serious trouble. However there are ways to obtain what you need. At this point we could explain the many benefits of using a small bag to contain the hardware and attach it to a part of the frame with heavy packing tape so it's easily found. Who am I kidding though? I've moved mine now about three times and each time I ended up missing a bolt, a barrel nut, a nylon roller here and there. Heck, I was lucky I had all the wood components show up at each new move let alone any hardware that happened to make it as well. Besides, is not moving your home stressful enough without having to keep track of a small bag of metal hardware among a sea of ​​furniture, clothing, dishes, toys and appliances?

Pursuing this further we must calmly step back and think for a moment. Yes, we're stressed out and fuming at either our spouse or the moving company for losing the futon hardware but we need to move past that now. To be sure the futon needs our help and we're the only ones who can do it at this point. It's time for us to go through the steps of obtaining replacement hardware and there is a specific order in which we do this to obtain the fastest results. I would suggest the following steps to start tracking down replacement hardware as soon as possible.

First – identify your futon frame.
Having worked retail, it's quite possibly the toughest situation when a customer comes into the store requiring assistance but can not identify the product to the salesperson or service individual when requesting parts. Granted you're going to have to do a little research by pulling your receipt when you bought the futon from the store and identify the model or name of the futon. If you inherited the futon, found it by the side of the road or bought it at a garage sale you're in for a tough road ahead. Fear not however as the internet can be used to help you find the design and attach a name to it for use in tracking down hardware. Be aware that there are dozens of manufacturers out there using different hardware in their frames including many that have since closed their doors. Hopefully the manufacturer of your frame is still around.

Second – speak to the retailer.
Of course if you purchased your futon frame through a local retail store it's time to head down there and see if they can track down the hardware for your frame. Bring your receipt. If you do not have a receipt, then bring an image of the futon frame with you. Hopefully the salesperson or service representative is knowledgeable about the products that they've carried in the past. Best case scenario, they either can provide you with the name of the manufacturer with contact information or have the parts on hand to get you back up and running. Worst case scenario the store you purchased it is out of business or if the store is still around they have no clue about the product anymore.

Third – search online.
Supposing we've hit the worse case scenario it's time to use the web to search for the manufacturer or the name of the style of futon you have. I'd suggest using Google, Bing or Yahoo and use the name adding the word futon to the search. If you were not able to locate a name you're going to have to become a very good spotter and sift through the many images of futon frames till you find one that is very close to what you have. Identify the name of the style and the manufacturer and then proceed to locate the manufacturer of the futon frame.

Fourth – speak to the manufacturer.
Assuming the retailer did not have parts but could identify the manufacturer for you then at least have something to go on. Perhaps you were able to locate your frame style through the search engines. Again, search online using the websites previously discussed using the name of the manufacturer. You'll likely get some online retail stores off of the search. Filter them out visually until you find a link for the manufacturer. Most do have websites, locate a contact phone number or email address and contact them for information on obtaining hardware. If you're unable to locate the manufacturer's website go ahead and contact one of the many futon stores that pop-up in the search results and email them with your issue and ask if they can either sell you hardware or point you in the right direction For finding the manufacturer in hopes of tracking down hardware.

Finally – the last resort.
If you were unable to determine the name of the futon frame or the name of the manufacturer you are indeed in a tight spot. At this point your options are limited to heading down to a hardware store and seeing if you can locate some generic parts that might get you back up and running. The problem will be in the way of connecting bolts and barrel nuts and getting the right lengths if available. I would suggest taking one of the wood arms and a stretcher rail with you to the store. Begin plugging in different bolts and nuts till you find a combination that connects correctly. You'll also need to track down connecting pins, washers and clips for the seat and back section as well as the four nylon rollers that most futon frames use on the back rest. If you're lucky these may still be attached to the backrest deck making your job a bit easier.

In conclusion we've discussed the issues presented with lost futon hardware and how to go about tracking down the hardware you need. Basically identify your frame through a receipt or spotting it online. Visit the retailer store you purchased it from and obtain parts through them if they are still open. If you purchased it privately or inherited the frame track down the manufacturer using a search engine of your choice and speak to them about ordering replacements. If you are not able to locate the manufacturer but have found stores online contact one of them to see if they can sell you hardware. If all else fails visit the local hardware store with your wood futon sections in hand and begin trying bolts and nuts till you find some that work. I sincerely hope you're able to obtain the needed hardware to get your futon frame back up and running. I wish you the best of luck to you and your futon.

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Advantages of Antispyware Programs

Much like the antivirus programs, now a days anti spyware programs also is a must if you are browsing the net. Most of the antivirus programs provide a good job by taking care of the computer viruses. However, many of them fail to detect the spyware which gets installed onto the PC when connected to the internet. This is where Anti spyware programs comes to help. They do a good job by protecting our computers by identifying the spyware and promptly remove them.

There are so many antispyware programs are available in the market. Both in the Online as well as near to your computer retail showroom. However, you have to ensure that you buy a good Anti spyware program which fulfills the requirements what it promises. Also, make sure to check that the software works on your Operating System. Most of them work on Windows Operating system; however, there is no harm in double checking the same.

Some of the characteristics of a good antispyware program is as below.

Real time scanning

Real time scanning is the heart of these type of programs. The program once installed should reside on your system tray and should be able to do a real time scan in the background. This way it should be able to identify all kinds of threats like Adware, spyware, Trojans and the harmful key loggers.

Automatic Updates

There is no point in having an Antispyware software program which does not update the spyware definitions automatically and at periodic intervals.

Customer Support

Most of the time you will not be require to call up their helpdesk as the software will work automatically provided if the operating system is compatible and all the installation prerequisites are met. However, if you run across any installation problems or some kind of bugs customer service comes in handy.

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Best Windows 7 Optimizer That Can Stabilize and Improve Your Computer Performance

A system optimizer is a software designed to maintain the performance of your computer, fix software related problems and keep your computer stable and secure. The need of a system optimizer software in Microsoft Windows7 operating system is high. This is because Windows 7 itself is unable to maintain all the mentioned aspects without the help of third-party products.

We are going to learn what exactly Windows 7 optimizer software is.

The best Windows 7 optimizer software shall include all the following features:

1. Registry Cleaner to fix the registry related issues

2. System Cleaner to clean unnecessary stuff and free-up the disk space

3. Registry Defragmenter to defrag the system registry

4. Startup Manager to control the programs running when you turn on your computer

5. Backup & Restore feature to restore unfavourable registry changes

“Registry Cleaner” to Fix the Registry Related Issues

Windows Registry is a vital component in Microsoft Windows 7. It contains information stored by your operating system and installed software. For example, the default settings, changes you made to your computer, system information, runtime data, etc. are stored.

Registry Cleaner is a software that finds the junk entries in the registry, and repairs them as far as possible. Unfortunately, Windows 7 does not include a built-in registry cleaner. The registry cleaner software included in the best Windows 7 optimizer lets you scan the genuine registry problems and correct them. It thereby helps avoiding many runtime errors and problems, such as, File Not Found, etc.

“System Cleaner” to Clean Unnecessary Stuff and Free-Up the Disk Space

A System Cleaner software lets you find the files and stuff that have unnecessarily occupied the hard disk space.

The tasks, like installing a program, uninstalling, repairing or updating the existing programs, and even just running the installed programs many times create temporary files, log files that need not be kept after the corresponding operation is performed. Sadly, many programs do not itself delete such files and stuff and thus your hard disk space is used for such unproductive stuff. Using a system cleaner software included in best Windows 7 optimizer, you can easily and safely delete such temporary stuff.

“Registry Defragmenter” to Defrag the System Registry

You know the importance of the registry in Windows 7 operating system, as already discussed. The continuous access of a number of programs to the registry results in its fragmentation. It reduces the system performance and freezes your computer.

The best Windows 7 optimizer software includes a registry defragmenter that enables analyzing the registry fragmentation and afterwards defrags it. A reboot is required to perform this process and all other running programs and services must be terminated.

“Startup Manager” to Control the Programs when you Turn on your Computer

Running too many programs at the Windows startup, results in system freezing and slow performance. A Startup Manager, included in best Windows 7 optimizer, lets you monitor and control the programs that run each time your computer is started. It lets you disable or delete the unwanted program entries and enable only those who are necessary.

Backup & Restore Feature to Restore the Unfavourable Registry

While doing all the above steps, care must be taken that you have followed some precautionary measures first, so that any unfavourable registry change can be later restored and unwilling situations can be easily avoided. The best Windows 7 optimizer should include such a feature.

Best Windows 7 Optimizer Recommended by Worldwide Experts

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The Advantages of Working With a Software Boutique Company

First of all, a boutique is a small shop where clients can find dedicated merchandise and unique items, or products which are produced in small quantities. The advantage of entering in such a shop, compared to big supermarkets, is that here you’ll also find staff ready to assist you and to give you guidance step by step. Indeed, one may say that a boutique charges higher prices, also in comparison to chain stores, which is definitely true. However, once you bought something from a boutique you’ll have the feeling that you own a unique item, which will differentiate you from the rest, and isn’t this what we all want – to be unique?

Software boutiques are a new way of defining petite software companies which are focused on a certain niche, and which are able to offer specialized support to their customers. Even more, such a firm is able to offer a unique product, tailored on the client’s needs and requirements. But, let’s see what advantages does a customer have when collaborating with a software boutique company:

Tailored product

A software boutique takes the client’s specifications and transforms them into a customized piece of software. Practically, if you are not satisfied by the mass-produced software programs which you can find, then a boutique company will tailor a product according to each and everyone of your requirements. The outcome will be a software product which is able to fit perfectly your company’s needs.

Niche focus

Generally, a boutique company is focused on a certain niche, for example developing applications and software products using Microsoft technologies. The advantage of having such a partner, is that you’ll have the confidence that he has the knowledge and proven experience to offer you the best advices regarding that specific area, and that he’s always updated with the latest technologies.

Crystal clear communication and dedicated support

Having a smaller amount of projects, a boutique software company can offer its clients dedicated support, according to every client’s need through a direct communication flow. This means that the information won’t need to travel through several departments until it reaches you, so that you’ll always be updated with the status and the quality of the work.

A good communication, not only that can save time, but also can make the development process more efficient. For example if you want a specific functionality for your application, collaborating with a boutique firm, you’ll able to keep track of the development process and promptly interfere in the development process if the work isn’t going in the desired direction, or if you want to change the approach. Also, fewer the clients, better the support. Practically, a software boutique will offer you their entire attention and expertise, whenever this is required.

Every client is important

For a boutique company every client is important, and because they can’t afford to lose a client, they can’t really afford to do a bad job. Every development project is treated with care, and you’ll know for sure that your project will be handled by the best men.

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Pick 3 Lotto Logix – What You Should Know

The primary goal of Lotto Logix is to present informational resources for many individuals who are interested in playing and winning in lottery. Lotto Logix locates and lists the best lottery websites having useful contents for players; determines the best possible methods and strategies for playing at the lowest cost; finding free lottery games and lists the vital factors a player needs for lottery software. If you want to learn about lottery games such as pick 3 Logix provides pertinent information, which may help you in terms of playing, betting, and winning.

Lotto Logix limits its lists of lottery websites into 1 or 2 links so that players can choose efficiently. The websites are grouped according to their functionality in terms of software, results, and information. More so, Lotto Logix provides information of every website including tips, news, articles, freeware, books, statistics, shareware, programs, software, predictions, wheeling systems, and wheels among others. Since Lotto Logix has the objective of winning the lottery, it also provides assistance for players who would want to do the same. It is undeniable that not everyone has answers or solutions to winning in the lottery. Thus, Lotto Logix hopes in bringing methods and strategies to fit into one tool that will effectively lead to lottery winnings.

Although some lottery players do not believe in the usefulness of lottery software for games such as pick 3 Logix believe that it can help in storing, tracking, and charting winning number combinations. Lottery software provides predictions that are useful in choosing numbers to bet. The software can provide 90% accuracy in terms of distribution of numbers as well as the winning numbers since it lets you import your wheeling system. You can wheel all the numbers in you Pick 3, 5, or 6 games as you are allowed to filter number combinations.

In terms of free lotto games, Lotto Logix locates and lists every free online lottery games with legit prizes and uses state drawings for the winning numbers. On the other hand, Lotto Logix does not list all the games specifically if the websites for such games advertise extremely. This is because Lotto Logix thinks that it is much better to separate them from other free online lottery games that do not advertise as much. As such, it plans on establishing a link-farm page specifically for games that employ pay-per-click advertising or those that employ sign-ups in order to cover for the page cost. However, Logix is not very enthusiastic in creating such additional page. This is because most of these kinds of sites have too much demand that seem outrageous or unbelievable for players.

If you want to improve your odds of winning in lottery games such as pick 3 Logix has determined that playing more tickets is the only efficient way. On the other hand, it has also determined that it is more possible for you to win lower tier prizes while waiting to with the grand prize. It is best to establish strategies that allow you to track specific events for possible winnings.

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Different Types of Computer Repair Services

Our dependency towards technology is increasing day by day. Even a minor problem in the operating system disrupts our life and hampers our work. With the development of new technology, there also comes many technical problems such as virus infections, spyware attacks on the operating system, networks issues, and hardware failures. Therefore, fast and efficient troubleshooters are always needed to fix all your technical problems without disabling your work.

With the indispensable use of computers in our daily lives, we can not imagine encountering an issue that will leave us without our personal computers thus; We seek to have the computer service immediately. But due to the busyness of life, it is not possible for us to go to a computer service centers every time and get the system repaired leaving you days without a computer. Seeing today's need, there are many efficient and fast troubleshooters available online that will solve your problem in a fraction of time. Many of us do not understand need for professional computer repair services and try to solve the system related problem by themselves. Before going to any of the computer repair service sites, it is very important to be aware of the various types of services that are offered by the computer repair service centers:

1. IT services like network installation and configuration (LAN / WAN setup).

2. Virus & spyware removal. Installation of anti-virus software for a proactive approach to external attacks.

3. Hardware repair: Laptop / Mac / PC, printer, scanner, motherboard; CD / DVD ROM installation etc.

4. Problems related to Website development and presentation, graphic designing

5. Firewall and email security setup.

6. Windows OS installation and troubleshooting

7. Data backup and recovery

8. Tutorials to employees for solving small problems in-house

So, These are some of the services offered by the service providers. Before hiring any of the online computer repair services, it is very important to check the various types of services offered by them. So that you do not need to switch to different computer repair services sites for different services. It is also very important to check that there is a team of expert technicians for solving computer related problems individually, as this will help in solving the problem fast and efficiently. It is better to switch to such online computer repair services that you avail with the guarantee of fixing the problem fast else money back. As such, promises will pressurize the technicians to work efficiently and fix the problem quickly.

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Determining the Best Type of Fastener to Use For Outdoor Furniture Construction

If you want to learn about selecting hardware for your next outdoor furniture project, then you'll want to read this article. Specifically, I'll be telling you about what type of hardware will perform best, why the type of metal used for fasteners and the finish used are important considerations, and how properly protecting or limiting exposure of your furniture to wet and winter conditions can increase Life span. After you're done with this article you will understand that the best choice of hardware for your outdoor furniture project is dependent on furniture style, material used for construction, selected location for the furniture and budget.

Selecting proper hardware for your furniture will help ensure a long life span, as well as improve the overall appearance of your furniture. Part of the problem is knowing what hardware to select when there are so many options available at the hardware store. The typical Lowes or Home Depot carries a huge selection of stainless steel, hot dipped galvanized, bright galvanized, plain steel, coated steel and brass bolts, nuts, washers and screws. Each type of fastener is suitable for certain applications, but not all are ideal for outdoor furniture applications.

In fact, choosing the wrong fasteners can greatly shorten the lifespan of your furniture, contribute to rot of wood furniture, cause unsightly staining, and even make your furniture unsafe to use.

One thing that needs to be noted right up front is, do not ever use unprotected steel fasteners for outdoor furniture, they will rust very quickly, and the steel will react with the tannic acid in the wood causing streaks and staining. The tannic acid actually speeds up the corrosion of the fasteners. Have you ever seen a wooden fence with black streaks running down the boards from the nails? This fence was installed with the wrong type of fasteners. The same thing will happen to your furniture. Even worse, as the fasteners rust, they will speed up the decay process of the wood around the rusted fasteners, ruining your furniture and making it potentially unsafe to use.

Hot Dipped Galvanized

Screws and bolts treated by hot dipped galvanizing are specifically designed for use outdoors. Electroplated galvanized or bright galvanized fasteners will very well not hold up as well as the hot dipped galvanized hardware. Zinc is used as a coating in both methods, and acts as a barrier against the elements and the tannic acids in the wood.

I strongly recommend only using screws or bolts in the construction of outdoor furniture, however. The galvanized finish on nails, either electroplated or hot dipped, can easily become damaged while hammering them in, exposing the nail head to the elements and allowing them to begin rusting quickly.

Adequate care must be taken when installing galvanized screws. Drill pilot holes in hardwoods, and be sure to use a bit that is not worn and intolerable to skipping in the screw head. For whatever reason, the galvanized screws seem to not be as well tempered as other steel fasteners, and are more likely to either snap off or have the heads strip out while installing them. Due to the permission required for the hot dipped coating, galvanized bolts do not have as tight of tolerance on the threads, and are more likely to strip if over tightened.

Hot dipped galvanized fasteners are a fine choice for many outdoor furniture applications, including Adirondack Chairs, but are not the best choice for use in woods, such as teak.

Stainless steel

Stainless steel is the best choice for use in woods with higher levels of tannic acid, such as teak. Stainless steel is an alloy or blend of steel, nickel and chrome. The ratio of the other metals with the steel determine the weather and corrosion resistance of stainless steel. Because the steel is mixed with other softer metals, the stainless steel is not as strong, so predrilling of screw holes is highly recommended in all applications, and essential in hardwoods such as teak and mahogany. The added corrosion resistance more than outweighs any shortcomings that the metal may have, especially in outdoor furniture applications.

While stainless steel fasteners are the most rust resistant, they are also the most expensive of the options we are discussing. However, using stainless steel fasteners will add years of life to your furniture. In the respect, they are an investment that will pay out for years to come.

Brass

I have seen brass used in some commercially produced outdoor furniture, but do not recommend it. While brass does not form red rust, and is well suited for many wet applications such as toilets and sinks, it does tarnish and corrode. It is also very susceptible to the tannic acids in wood, which will cause it to fail more quickly. Brass screws in particular Do not have sufficient strength for outdoor furniture applications.

Outdoor or deck screws

In the past several years a number of manufacturers have introduced outdoor fastening products specifically marketed for deck building. These will typically be green, gray, tan or brown. These screws are either ceramic or plastic coated to delay the metal reacting with the wood acids. The specific coating methods are proprietary to each manufacturer, and can be a combination of electroplated galvanizing and plastic, or a baked on ceramic.

I have used these fasteners in furniture applications and they perform just fine. Unfortunately, I have not come across bolts with this type of finish. The brand of screw I used was Deck Mate, and they were available in tan and brown, so that the color can be selected to better match the wood being used. These screws are ceramic covered, and the manufacturer provided a coated bit for installation, which was designed to not damage the ceramic coating at the screw head. If you choose this type of fastener, be sure to compare the cost with stainless steel, as the price will vary. If the stainless steel is reasonably comparable in cost, it would be the recommended fastener.

Always be sure to read the manufacturers specifications on the box to be sure that the screws are suitable for your application.

Other Considerations

If you are building furniture that will be located on a covered porch or patio where it will be protected from the elements, the concern will be the interaction between the wood and the fasteners, much more so than the weather. Furniture that will be exposed to the elements all year, such as a garden bench, or an adirondack chair in the corner of your garden, will have to be constructed with much more care and concern to ensure that they hold up more than just one or Two winters.

Additional considerations must be made beyond just the choice of what type of fastener to use, though this is very important. For example, fasteners should not be located where water where collect and sit on the fasteners for an extended period of time. The screws that attach the seat slats to an Adirondack chair are a prime example- typically these screws will be countersunk below the surface of the wood. This will allow water to collect in the screw holes, shortening the life span of all but stainless steel fasteners, and prolonging the exposure of the wood to water, which will increase the rate of decay. In applications where the furniture will be exposed to the elements year round the screw heads should be driven flush with the surface of the surrounding wood.

Construction and design of the furniture are also important considerations. Are the horizontal surfaces of the furniture constructed in such a way that will allow them to shed water, rather than collect it? Think of a picnic table with a slatted or board top. The gaps between the boards allow water a way to run off the top and not pool up.

Conclusion

Stainless steel is usually the best choice for outdoor furniture applications, although the cost may be prohibitive for some. There are other less expensive fastener options available that will perform acceptably. Do not use unprotected steel fasteners for outdoor furniture applications under any circumstances. Know where and how you intend to use your furniture and design it for the conditions it will be subjected to.

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Why Do We Need Software Engineering?

To understand the necessity for software engineering, we must pause briefly to look back at the recent history of computing. This history will help us to understand the problems that started to become obvious in the late sixties and early seventies, and the solutions that have led to the creation of the field of software engineering. These problems were referred to by some as “The software Crisis,” so named for the symptoms of the problem. The situation might also been called “The Complexity Barrier,” so named for the primary cause of the problems. Some refer to the software crisis in the past tense. The crisis is far from over, but thanks to the development of many new techniques that are now included under the title of software engineering, we have made and are continuing to make progress.

In the early days of computing the primary concern was with building or acquiring the hardware. Software was almost expected to take care of itself. The consensus held that “hardware” is “hard” to change, while “software” is “soft,” or easy to change. According, most people in the industry carefully planned hardware development but gave considerably less forethought to the software. If the software didn’t work, they believed, it would be easy enough to change it until it did work. In that case, why make the effort to plan?

The cost of software amounted to such a small fraction of the cost of the hardware that no one considered it very important to manage its development. Everyone, however, saw the importance of producing programs that were efficient and ran fast because this saved time on the expensive hardware. People time was assumed to save machine time. Making the people process efficient received little priority.

This approach proved satisfactory in the early days of computing, when the software was simple. However, as computing matured, programs became more complex and projects grew larger whereas programs had since been routinely specified, written, operated, and maintained all by the same person, programs began to be developed by teams of programmers to meet someone else’s expectations.

Individual effort gave way to team effort. Communication and coordination which once went on within the head of one person had to occur between the heads of many persons, making the whole process very much more complicated. As a result, communication, management, planning and documentation became critical.

Consider this analogy: a carpenter might work alone to build a simple house for himself or herself without more than a general concept of a plan. He or she could work things out or make adjustments as the work progressed. That’s how early programs were written. But if the home is more elaborate, or if it is built for someone else, the carpenter has to plan more carefully how the house is to be built. Plans need to be reviewed with the future owner before construction starts. And if the house is to be built by many carpenters, the whole project certainly has to be planned before work starts so that as one carpenter builds one part of the house, another is not building the other side of a different house. Scheduling becomes a key element so that cement contractors pour the basement walls before the carpenters start the framing. As the house becomes more complex and more people’s work has to be coordinated, blueprints and management plans are required.

As programs became more complex, the early methods used to make blueprints (flowcharts) were no longer satisfactory to represent this greater complexity. And thus it became difficult for one person who needed a program written to convey to another person, the programmer, just what was wanted, or for programmers to convey to each other what they were doing. In fact, without better methods of representation it became difficult for even one programmer to keep track of what he or she is doing.

The times required to write programs and their costs began to exceed to all estimates. It was not unusual for systems to cost more than twice what had been estimated and to take weeks, months or years longer than expected to complete. The systems turned over to the client frequently did not work correctly because the money or time had run out before the programs could be made to work as originally intended. Or the program was so complex that every attempt to fix a problem produced more problems than it fixed. As clients finally saw what they were getting, they often changed their minds about what they wanted. At least one very large military software systems project costing several hundred million dollars was abandoned because it could never be made to work properly.

The quality of programs also became a big concern. As computers and their programs were used for more vital tasks, like monitoring life support equipment, program quality took on new meaning. Since we had increased our dependency on computers and in many cases could no longer get along without them, we discovered how important it is that they work correctly.

Making a change within a complex program turned out to be very expensive. Often even to get the program to do something slightly different was so hard that it was easier to throw out the old program and start over. This, of course, was costly. Part of the evolution in the software engineering approach was learning to develop systems that are built well enough the first time so that simple changes can be made easily.

At the same time, hardware was growing ever less expensive. Tubes were replaced by transistors and transistors were replaced by integrated circuits until micro computers costing less than three thousand dollars have become several million dollars. As an indication of how fast change was occurring, the cost of a given amount of computing decreases by one half every two years. Given this realignment, the times and costs to develop the software were no longer so small, compared to the hardware, that they could be ignored.

As the cost of hardware plummeted, software continued to be written by humans, whose wages were rising. The savings from productivity improvements in software development from the use of assemblers, compilers, and data base management systems did not proceed as rapidly as the savings in hardware costs. Indeed, today software costs not only can no longer be ignored, they have become larger than the hardware costs. Some current developments, such as nonprocedural (fourth generation) languages and the use of artificial intelligence (fifth generation), show promise of increasing software development productivity, but we are only beginning to see their potential.

Another problem was that in the past programs were often before it was fully understood what the program needed to do. Once the program had been written, the client began to express dissatisfaction. And if the client is dissatisfied, ultimately the producer, too, was unhappy. As time went by software developers learned to lay out with paper and pencil exactly what they intended to do before starting. Then they could review the plans with the client to see if they met the client’s expectations. It is simpler and less expensive to make changes to this paper-and-pencil version than to make them after the system has been built. Using good planning makes it less likely that changes will have to be made once the program is finished.

Unfortunately, until several years ago no good method of representation existed to describe satisfactorily systems as complex as those that are being developed today. The only good representation of what the product will look like was the finished product itself. Developers could not show clients what they were planning. And clients could not see whether what the software was what they wanted until it was finally built. Then it was too expensive to change.

Again, consider the analogy of building construction. An architect can draw a floor plan. The client can usually gain some understanding of what the architect has planned and give feed back as to whether it is appropriate. Floor plans are reasonably easy for the layperson to understand because most people are familiar with the drawings representing geometrical objects. The architect and the client share common concepts about space and geometry. But the software engineer must represent for the client a system involving logic and information processing. Since they do not already have a language of common concepts, the software engineer must teach a new language to the client before they can communicate.

Moreover, it is important that this language be simple so it can be learned quickly.

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